Undertakers often need to use a specific type or quality of material and special protective components in the immediate vicinity of certain types of underground apparatus. This material is usually referred to as the surround to the apparatus and may include fine unbound granular materials (usually termed ‘fine fill’), bound materials, tiles, covers, tubular shields, etc., or any combination thereof. The resulting surround may be required for a variety of reasons, including structural support, low corrosion potential, protection for non-metallic materials or special coatings, etc.
The nature of the undertaker’s apparatus, and the protective features of the surround, especially any fine unbound granular materials used within the surround, may impose additional restrictions on the type of compaction equipment that can be used and the necessary operating procedures. However, the entire surround will effectively form a foundation structure for the remainder of the reinstatement and must be capable of providing adequate support for all loading imposed on the reinstatement surface, as well as the weight of the reinstatement structure.
In selecting material for the surround to apparatus, undertakers should be mindful of the potential for the migration of fines from the adjacent ground or the overlying backfill into any surround material that is open-textured. Such migration will normally result in settlement of the adjacent ground and backfill. Migration of fines can be prevented by using a close textured surround or by enclosing the surround within a suitable filter membrane.
An ARM proposed for use as the surround to apparatus should have been approved for this specific application, which may also require consideration of different types of apparatus.